The term “Indian paramilitary forces” refers to organizations that actively support the Indian Armed Forces and are led by the Indian Army or Indian Navy authorities. In any case, any law or rules of the Indian Government have not characterized the term ‘paramilitary’.
At present times, the Indian paramilitary forces include the following three: The Assam Rifles is the most unique Ministry of Home Affairs and Operational being held by the Ministry of Defense for example Indian Army. The Special Frontier Force falls under the domain Cabinet Secretariat and Indian Coast Guard falls under the domain of the Ministry of Defense.
Border Security Force [BSF], Central Reserve Police Force [CRPF], Indo-Tibetan Border Police [ITBP], Central Industrial Security Force [CISF], and Sashastra Seema Bal [SSB] were given the uniform classification of Central Armed Police Forces [CAPF] in 2011, alluding to the Central Police Forces, a ‘Military of the Union,’ though Assam Rifles was set under it (CPMF). CAPF (Central Armed Police Force) are not Indian Paramilitary Forces. These are the Government’s Armed Police Forces. Prior to 2011, they were referred to as Central Police Forces (CPO) because they had been in operation since January 1, 1986.
Below are the three Paramilitary Forces of our India:
- Assam Rifles (AR)
- Indian Coast Guard (ICG)
- Special Frontier Force (SFF)
Assam Rifles (AR)
The Assam Rifles have its origins under the name of Cachar Levy, a paramilitary police unit founded in 1835 during British control. It is therefore the prime (oldest and the very first) Paramilitary Force of India. It is at present headquartered at Shillong, Meghalaya in India. Throughout the long term, they have gone through various name changes and were at last taken on in 1917. There are 46 contingents heavily influenced by the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and they perform numerous jobs including interior security, counter insurrection, and line security tasks. There is currently 63,747 Active Personnel.
The Assam Rifles have taken an interest in an assortment of missions, clashes, and situated at various areas since its commencement, including World War I, where they served in Europe and the Middle East, and World War II, where they largely served in Burma. Following China’s expansion of Tibet, the Assam Rifles were assigned to keep an eye on the Tibetan line in the Assam Himalayan region. They were also crucial in maintaining peace and order in the original state of Arunachal Pradesh.
At the moment, the Assam Rifles do not have their own Core group. Officers from the Indian Army tell stories. Army officers are assigned to the Assam Rifles on a residency basis rather than on deputation.
Indian Coast Guard (ICG)
The Indian Navy recommended the formation of the Indian Coast Guard to provide non-military marine forms of aid to the country. In the 1960s, commodity piracy on the high seas was jeopardizing India’s domestic economy. The Indian Customs Department much of the time called upon the Indian Navy for help with watch and interference in the counter pirating exertion.
The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) is an oceanic law implementation and search and salvage organization of India with purview over its regional waters including its coterminous zone and elite financial zone. The Indian Coast Guard was established on February 1, 1977, by the Indian Parliament’s Coast Guard Act, 1978. It is a Ministry of Defense unit.
The Indian Navy, the Department of Fisheries, the Department of Revenue (Customs), and the Central and State police powers all collaborate closely with the Coast Guard. Currently, there are about 20,000 active soldiers, 157 ships, and 62 aircraft.
Special Frontier Force (SFF)
The Special Frontier Force (SFF) is an Indian extraordinary tasks unit made on 14 November 1962. It basically included Tibetan exiles living in India. Presently it has expanded in size and extent of tasks. There are currently 5,000-12,000 (speculated) personnel.
Its essential objective initially was to direct secretive activities behind Chinese lines in case of another Sino-Indian War. In its whole history, the SFF has fought in major foreign battles including those of the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Kargil War. It has likewise been associated with interior security, including Operation Blue Star and furthermore filling in as the “Individual Force” of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to stifle resistance groups during the highly sensitive situation from 1975 to 1977.
It has been important for line tasks against China, including the 2020 China–India encounters. SSF is headquartered in Chakrata, Uttarakhand, and was placed under the direct supervision of the Intelligence Bureau (IB), and later the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), India’s external intelligence agency, and still does not appear to be part of the Indian Army but operates under their operational control, with its own rank structure, charter, and training resources. It falls under the authority of the Directorate General of Security in the Cabinet Secretariat headed by an Inspector General (SFF) who is chosen from the Major General position of the Indian Army and who reports straightforwardly to the Prime Minister’s Office.
All these forces together make our Paramilitary Forces.